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热泵:有效 & 生态

热泵如何实现节能和二氧化碳排放2 减排

This section gives a brief introduction to heat pumps. Based on six basic facts about heat supply the value of heat pumps is discussed. It is argued that heat pumps are very energy efficient, and therefore environmentally benign.

Heat pumps offer the most energy-efficient way to provide heating and cooling in many applications, as they can use renewable heat sources in our surroundings. 即使在我们认为是冷的温度下, 空气, 地面, and water contain useful heat that's continuously replenished by the sun. 通过增加一点能量, a heat pump can raise the temperature of this heat energy to the level needed. 类似的, 热泵也可以利用余热源, 比如工业过程, cooling equipment or ventilation 空气 extracted from buildings. A typical electrical heat pump will just need 100 kWh of power to turn 200 kWh of freely available environmental or waste heat into 300 kWh of useful heat.

通过这种独特的能力, heat pumps can radically improve the energy efficiency and environmental value of any heating system that is driven by primary energy resources such as fuel or power. The following six facts should be considered when any heat supply system is designed:

  1. direct combustion to generate heat is never the most efficient use of fuel;
  2. heat pumps are more efficient because they use renewable energy in the form of low-temperature heat;
  3. if the fuel used by conventional boilers were redirected to supply power for electric heat pumps, 大约需要减少35-50%的燃料, 减少35-50%的排放;
  4. around 50% savings are made when electric heat pumps are driven by CHP (combined heat and power or cogeneration) systems;
  5. 是否化石燃料, 核能源, or renewable power is used to generate electricity, electric heat pumps make far better use of these resources than do resistance heaters;
  6. 的燃料消耗, 因此排放率, of an absorption or gas-engine heat pump is about 35-50% less than that of a conventional boiler.

If it is further considered that heat pumps can meet space heating, 热水供热, 所有类型的建筑都需要冷却, 以及许多工业采暖要求, it is clear that heat pumps have a large and worldwide potential.

Of the global CO2 emissions that amounted to 22 billion tonnes in 1997, heating in building causes 30% and industrial activities cause 35%. The potential CO2 减排 with heat pumps is calculated as follows:

  • 6.6 billion tonnes CO2 comes from heating buildings (30% of total emissions).
  • 1.0 billion tonnes can be saved by residential and commercial heat pumps, assuming that they can provide 30% of the heating for buildings, 减少50%的排放量.

CO2总减排潜力为1.2 billion tonnes is about 6% of the global emissions! This is one of the largest that a single technology can offer, and this technology is already available in the marketplace. And with higher efficiencies in power plants as well as for the heat pump itself, the future global emissions saving potential is even 16%.

In some regions of the world, heat pumps already play an important role in energy systems. But if this technology is to achieve more widespread use, a decisive effort is needed to stimulate heat pump markets and to further optimize the technology. It is encouraging that a number of governments and 公用事业公司 are strongly supporting heat pumps. 在所有情况下, it is important to ensure that both heat pump applications and policies are based on a careful assessment of the facts, 从尽可能广泛的经验基础. The IEA 热泵 Centre sees it as one of its key roles to ensure that these facts are available to a wide audience, 包括政策制定者, 公用事业公司, 市场方, 热泵用户.

IEA (International Energy Agency) 热泵 Centre

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