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Controlling Indoor Air Pollution

三种最常见的减少室内空气污染的方法(按效能排序)如下:

  1. Source Control: Eliminate or control the sources of pollution;
  2. Ventilation: Dilute and exhaust pollutants through outdoor air ventilation, and
  3. Air Cleaning: Remove pollutants through proven air cleaning methods.

Of the three, the first approach -- source control -- is the most effective. 这包括尽量减少使用造成室内污染的产品和材料, 采用良好的卫生习惯,尽量减少生物污染物(包括控制湿度和水分), and occasional cleaning and disinfection of wet or moist surfaces), and using good housekeeping practices to control particles.

The second approach -- outdoor air ventilation -- is also effective and commonly employed. 通风方法包括在靠近污染源的地方安装排气扇, increasing outdoor air flows in mechanical ventilation systems, and opening windows, especially when pollutant sources are in use.

The third approach -- air cleaning -- is not generally regarded as sufficient in itself, but is sometimes used to supplement source control and ventilation. Air filters, electronic particle air cleaners, and ionizers are often used to remove airborne particles, 在气源控制和通风不充分的情况下,有时采用气体吸附材料去除气态污染物.

Three Basic Strategies

Source Control

Usually, 改善室内空气质量最有效的方法是消除个别污染源或减少其排放. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed; others, like gas stoves, can be adjusted to decrease the amount of emissions. In many cases, 污染源控制也是一种比增加通风更经济有效的保护室内空气质量的方法,因为增加通风会增加能源成本. 具体的室内空气污染的来源在您的家在本节后面列出.

Ventilation Improvements

另一个降低室内空气污染物浓度的方法是增加进入室内的室外空气量. Most home heating and cooling systems, including forced air heating systems, do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. Opening windows and doors, operating window or attic fans, when the weather permits, 或者开着开窗空调,会增加室外的通风口. 当地的卫生间或厨房风机,通过向室外排风,可直接将污染物从风机所在的房间中清除出去,同时增加室外空气的通风量.

例如,当你从事可能产生高水平污染物的短期活动时,尽可能多地采取这些步骤尤为重要, painting, paint stripping, heating with kerosene heaters, cooking, or engaging in maintenance and hobby activities such as welding, soldering, or sanding. 如果天气允许,你也可以选择在户外进行这些活动.

先进的新住宅设计开始采用机械系统,将室外空气引入家中. 其中一些设计包括节能的热回收通风器(也称为空气-空气热交换器).

Air Cleaners

There are many types and sizes of air cleaners on the market, 从相对便宜的桌面模型到复杂昂贵的全屋系统. Some air cleaners are highly effective at particle removal, while others, including most table-top models, are much less so. Air cleaners are generally not designed to remove gaseous pollutants.

空气净化器的效果取决于它从室内空气中收集污染物的效果(以效率百分比表示)和它通过清洁或过滤元件吸进的空气量(以立方英尺/分钟表示). 一个非常高效的收集器,但空气循环率低,是无效的, 一个空气循环率高但效率较低的收集器也不会. 任何空气净化器的长期性能取决于根据制造商的指示进行og体育游戏.

另一个决定空气净化器效能的重要因素是污染源的强度. Table-top air cleaners, in particular, 可能不能从附近的强污染源中去除满意数量的污染物. 对特定污染源敏感的人可能会发现,空气净化器只有在消除污染源的共同努力下才有帮助.

Over the past few years, 有一些宣传表明,室内植物在实验室实验中被证明可以降低某些化学物质的含量. There is currently no evidence, however, 合理数量的室内植物可以去除家庭和办公室中的大量污染物. 室内盆栽植物不应浇水过多,因为过于潮湿的土壤可能会促进微生物的生长,从而影响过敏个体.

At present, 美国环境保护署不建议使用空气净化器来降低氡及其衰变产物的水平. 这些装置的有效性尚不确定,因为它们只是部分地去除氡衰变产物,并没有减少进入家庭的氡量. EPA plans to do additional research on whether air cleaners are, or could become, a reliable means of reducing the health risk from radon.

对于大多数家庭室内空气质量问题,源头控制是最有效的解决方案. 本节将逐源查看最常见的室内空气污染物, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce levels in the home.


Source: Environmental Protection Agency

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Bryan's Heating and Air Conditioning
    700 Ramsey Dr.
Valley Center, KS 67147
   (316) 755-2447
   LIC#1696S
 
Hours of Operation
 
    Monday | 7:30am - 5:00pm
  Tuesday | 7:30am - 5:00pm
  Wednesday | 7:30am - 5:00pm
  Thursday | 7:30am - 5:00pm
  Friday | 7:30am - 5:00pm
  Saturday | CLOSED
  Sunday | CLOSED
    Monday - Friday | 7:30am - 5:00pm
 
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